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FL Status: State-designated Threatened. 2010, p. 816). We must receive requests for public hearings, in writing, at the address shown in FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT by December 9, 2019. Often seen flying low over the water, with quick deep wingbeats and shrill cries. Identification . documents in the last year, 233 Comments and materials we receive, as well as supporting documentation we used in preparing this proposed rule, will be available for public inspection on Copies can also be obtained from the U.S. In the Search box, enter FWS-R4-ES-2018-0082, which is the docket number for this rulemaking. 2, 24; 2018, pp. Least tern . Existing State and Federal regulatory mechanisms (Factor D) are adequate to protect the tern from the reduced threats. After 34 years on the endangered species list, a tiny Midwestern bird is ready to fly free of federal protection. Return rates of banded adults to the sites where they were banded was 36 to 86 percent in California colonies; 42 percent on the Mississippi River; 28 percent on the central Platte River, Nebraska; and 81 percent at Quivira National Wildlife Refuge in Kansas and on the Cimarron River in Oklahoma (Thompson et al. The water-loving least tern measures only 8 to 9 inches, making it the smallest in North America. The Interior least tern rangewide numerical recovery criterion (7,000 birds) has been met and has been exceeded since 1994 (see Service 2013). 153-157; Ruelle 1993, pp. Breeding-site fidelity for least terns varies in different populations and breeding areas. Interior least tern : endangered species . It is a gregarious and charismatic creature, joining its neighbors to boldly mob, peck, and defecate on intruders to drive them away from their nests, which are situated on the ground. Since its 1985 listing under the Act, the Interior least tern has shown an ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions caused by both human and natural disturbances. 10-21, 50). Interior least tern reproductive success is higher on island colonies as compared to connected sandbar colonies, and when water levels maintain isolation of islands and nesting bars from mammalian predators (Smith and Renken 1993, p. 42; Szell and Woodrey 2003, p. 41). Anthropogenic sites used by the tern include industrial sites (Ciuzio et al. endstream endobj 223 0 obj <>>>/Filter/Standard/Length 128/O(�&��ws#ͥ�����TA���VEp`\r~�X�6)/P -1340/R 4/StmF/StdCF/StrF/StdCF/U(PUs���u�r��4-� )/V 4>> endobj 224 0 obj <>/Metadata 14 0 R/Pages 220 0 R/StructTreeRoot 30 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 225 0 obj <>/MediaBox[0 0 612 792]/Parent 220 0 R/Resources<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Tabs/S/Type/Page>> endobj 226 0 obj <>stream Habitat Reauirements and Limiting Factors: Interior least terns breed in the Mississippi and Rio Grande River Basins from Montana to Texas and from eastern New Mexico and Colorado to Indiana and Louisiana. This repetition of headings to form internal navigation links Recovery criteria identified in the recovery plan were designed to assure the protection of essential habitat by removal of threats at that time and habitat enhancement, establish agreed-upon management plans, and attain a rangewide population of 7,000 birds at the levels listed below (for five major river drainages throughout the Interior least tern's range): (1) Adult birds in the Missouri River system will increase to 2,100, and remain stable for 10 years. 1992, p. 980). FWS-R4-ES-2018-0082 or​mississippiES/​. Lott (2006, entire) organized, compiled, and reported a synchronized rangewide count for Interior least tern in 2005, finding tern numbers had doubled since 1995 (17,591 birds rangewide; 62 percent occurring along the Lower Mississippi River), equaling or exceeding least tern population estimates along the U.S. Gulf Coast (Lott 2006, p. 50). on The transfer includes the former airstrip… At the time, there were an estimated 300 pairs distributed among 14 nesting sites in San Diego and Orange Counties, and at a single northern California site at Bair Island in San Mateo County (Craig 1971). Interior least tern chicks leave their nests within a few days of hatching (semiprecocial), but remain near the nests and are fed by their parents until fledging (Thompson et al. These existing management strategies and programs (USACE 2013, 2016, 2017) are protective of waters and habitats managed by USACE that support about 80 percent of the Interior least tern's range. on NARA's Unlike the common and Forster’s . Interior least terns are listed as endangered in the following 16 of the 18 States where they occur: South Dakota, Nebraska, Colorado, Iowa, Illinois, Missouri, Kansas, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, Indiana, New Mexico, Montana, and Texas. The least tern is the smallest of the North . Adequate representation ensures that the species' adaptive capabilities are conserved, specifically through its representation across all historical ecological settings, and through preservation of the genetic diversity of the species. In most cases, severe habitat degradation in even relatively large areas was insufficient to change the baseline population increases observed during “No Action” scenarios to population declines, beyond very local areas. However, many Federal action agencies now have an extensive history of managing and restoring Interior least tern habitats (some more than two decades) in compliance with non-discretionary requirements of section 7(a)(2) of the Act (in the Missouri, Red, Arkansas, middle Mississippi Rivers), as well as discretionary components of section 7(a)(1) of the Act, E.O. Photo by B. Byrne, MDFW . These include provisions emphasizing the protection and restoration of ecosystem function and quality in compliance with existing Federal environmental statutes and regulations (e.g., under National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA; 42 U.S.C. Register documents. Typical least tern clutch size is reported as two to three eggs (Thompson et al. In accordance with the President's memorandum of April 29, 1994, “Government-to-Government Relations with Native American Tribal Governments” (59 FR 22951), Executive Order 13175, and the Department of the Interior's manual at 512 DM 2, we readily acknowledge our responsibility to communicate meaningfully with recognized Federal Tribes on a government-to-government basis. Interior least tern can be taken off endangered species list, scientists agree. (3) The original data used at the time the species was classified were in error. Section 4(f) of the Act directs us to develop and implement recovery plans for the conservation and survival of endangered and threatened species unless we determine that such a plan will not promote the conservation of the species. establishing the XML-based Federal Register as an ACFR-sanctioned Regarding the remaining 10 percent of the population that nest in habitats with minimal or no management, while these areas contribute to redundancy and representation for the species, their success or failure within these sites is not essential to the continued existence of the Interior least tern. Our selection of which question to address first for a particular portion depends on the biology of the species, its range, and the threats it faces. This generally means that we will post any personal information you provide us (see Public Comments, below, for more information). We will summarize the opinions of these reviewers in the final decision documents, and we will consider their input and any additional information we receive as part of our process of making a final decision on this proposal and draft PDM plan. Phenotypic plasticity (i.e., the ability to shift dates of migration, breeding, fledgling, etc.) regulatory information on with the objective of 1531 et seq.). 12/04/2020, 137 16 U.S.C. provide legal notice to the public or judicial notice to the courts. Least terns within the Interior Basin of North America were described as Sterna antillarum athalassos, a subspecies of the eastern least tern (S. antillarum antillarum) (Burleigh and Lowery 1942, pp. 3622-3623, Lott and Sheppard 2017b, pp. documents in the last year. The U.S. The new information may change the extent that criteria need to be met for recognizing recovery of the species. documents in the last year, 1437 At both stages in this process—the stage of screening potential portions to identify any portions that warrant further consideration and the stage of undertaking the more detailed analysis of any portions that do warrant further consideration—it might be more efficient for us to address the “significance” question or the “status” question first. Until the ACFR grants it official status, the XML daily Federal Register on will remain an unofficial 16-cv-01165-JCS, 2018 WL 4053447 (N.D. Cal. Document Drafting Handbook In particular, we are seeking comments on: (1) Biological data regarding the Interior least tern, including the locations of any additional populations, survey data, or other relevant information; (2) Relevant data concerning any threats (or lack thereof) to the Interior least tern; (3) Additional information regarding the range, distribution, life history, ecology, and habitat use of the Interior least tern; (4) Current or planned activities within the geographic range of the Interior least tern that may negatively impact or benefit the Interior least tern; and. Register (ACFR) issues a regulation granting it official legal status. documents in the last year, 32 Interior least tern eggs, chicks, and adults are prey for a variety of mammal and bird predators. During 2014, an Interior least tern banded in the Missouri River drainage was captured in Japan, along with another unbanded tern (Shigeta in litt. While the Interior least tern has possibly been affected by loss of significant reaches of riverine habitat such as the lower Missouri River and lower Red River, it has also increased its longitudinal range by exploiting anthropogenic habitats such as reservoirs in central Texas, Colorado, and the Rio Grande, and industrial sites in the Wabash. 59-62). While such populations contribute some small benefit to the rangewide redundancy and representation of the tern (see discussion of metapopulaion, above), they cumulatively represent less than 2 percent of the summer nesting population and their success or failure within individual sites has little impact on the rangewide conservation status of the Interior least tern. Least Terns prefer to nest on sandy beaches, but will sometimes use flat gravel roofs. endangered on June 27, 1985 (50 Federal Register 21,784-21,792). The least tern was listed as endangered in 1985 in the following States: Arkansas, Colorado, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana (Mississippi River and tributaries north of Baton Rouge), Mississippi (Mississippi River), Missouri, Montana, North Dakota, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Tennessee, and Texas (U.S. (USACE Start Printed Page 569802008, pp. Interior least tern eggs, chicks, and adult individuals are susceptible to a wide variety of avian and terrestrial predators. The Interior least tern adjusts to habitat variation and change over its range through metapopulation dynamics (Hanski and Gilpin 1991, entire; Lott et al. 14-21), and the recovery goal of 2,100 birds is not achievable. This document proposes to delist the Interior least tern (Sterna (now Sternula) antillarum). on Counts are subject to sampling, reprocessing and revision (up or down) throughout the day. Recovery tasks identified for managing water flows are primarily relevant to portions of the Missouri, Red, and Arkansas River drainages, which cumulatively encompass about 20 percent of the Interior least tern breeding population. �uZ2���u�Ca�l`2�o�����w�G���0#���ѹ����~��/^�ځU|�9����+�b{8M�ޜ���4Z�nX_�1۔�#��ʼ� �|����,�9���˹�ĪW�Q8�4����I��V,Y���٢���-|��\G%�_ �Tn�H��NH!������X��� p/�I����,�YM^���16��` T$�� Q���ɀS.I�T�&�~�B2y?� ��R ��|-��;��Q�d�i��֋3 �]�zr���ӯ�������}W3bM�H[ۺ��(���oF�~���Q����F-�G�������U��G��1�]�>b�Y`~�-�D�n�Y�Ry�u����. Our smallest tern. We are requesting comments from independent specialists to ensure that we base our determination on scientifically sound data, assumptions, and analyses. ORV impacts have been documented in most drainages where Interior least terns nest (Red, Mississippi, Arkansas, Ohio, and Missouri river drainages). Additionally, significantly higher rates of predation were documented in larger colonies compared to smaller colonies (Burger 1984, p. 65). Invasive salt cedar and willow growth, decreases in annual rainfall, and overuse and depletion of aquifers, coupled with increased human water demands, are occurring in the Southern and Northern Plains rivers, possibly to the future detriment of Interior least tern habitat and forage availability in those drainages. Primary recovery tasks conducted to achieve the recovery objective and drainage population targets included: (1) Determining the distribution and population trends of the Interior least tern; (2) Determining habitat requirements and status; (3) Protecting, enhancing, and increasing Interior least tern populations; and. 2, 24; 2018, pp. A state management plan was written for least terns in Maine in 1993 and revised in 2007. The Interior least tern is a bird that nests adjacent to major rivers of the Great Plains and Lower Mississippi Valley. By . 14-15). 1997, p. 11). However, increases in impervious surfaces (e.g., artificial structures or compacted soils associated with human developments) may offset the negative effects of climate change in some watersheds, while human demands such as urban or industrial utilization, and irrigation, could either offset or exacerbate climate change effects in others (Caldwell et al. Recovery plans are not regulatory documents and are instead intended to: (1) Establish goals for long-term conservation of a listed species; (2) define criteria that are designed to indicate when the threats facing a species have been removed or reduced to such an extent that the species may no longer need the protections of the Act; and (3) provide guidance to our Federal, State, and other governmental and nongovernmental partners on methods to minimize threats to listed species. rendition of the daily Federal Register on does not However, the inability to meet these drainage and sub-drainage targets have been offset by large increases in the Interior least tern populations within the Arkansas, Red, and Lower Mississippi rivers, and by the discovery of numerous subpopulation segments throughout the Interior Basin that were either unrecognized or not occupied at the time of listing and recovery plan development, increasing the number of known breeding colonies from a few dozen at listing to more than 480 (Lott 2006, p. 10; also see Service 2013, pp. Least Terns are protected by the Kansas Nongame and Endangered Species Conservation Act, the Federal Endangered Species Act, and state and federal regulations applicable to those acts. Therefore, we invite tribal and governmental agencies, the scientific community, industry, and other interested parties to submit data, comments, and new information concerning this proposed rule. The Service defined the historical breeding range of the Interior least tern to include the Colorado (in Texas), Red, Rio Grande, Arkansas, Missouri, Ohio, and Mississippi Rivers systems from Montana south to Texas, and from New Mexico east to Indiana (50 FR 21784; May 28, 1985). Where the best available information allows the Services to determine a status for the species rangewide, that determination should be given conclusive weight because a rangewide determination of status more accurately reflects the species' degree of imperilment and better promotes the purposes of the Act. These characteristics, coupled with the bird's long life, its ability to re-nest, and its ability to relocate to more productive areas, enable it to cope with local periodic cycles of low fish prey abundance. Hardy (1957, entire) provided the first information on least tern distribution on large interior rivers, documenting records of occurrence and nesting in the Mississippi, Ohio, Missouri, Arkansas, and Red river drainages. The least tern is protected by the U.S. Migratory Bird Treaty Act. 42-61). Most of this increase is along the Lower Mississippi River. As noted above, this does not include least tern colonies nesting along the coasts of Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Change effects in some species ( Hof et al the publication of this document viability the... Notice to the species is one that no longer considered necessary for this document has been found within the text! As endangered in Midwest and Great Plains and Lower Mississippi River not subject to sampling, reprocessing and (... Some reaches of the Interior population of the MBTA will remain in place ( TDD ) constructed... Federal laws laws may continue following Federal delisting and dark eye stripes on their white heads are and... Plan for the Interior population of the methods described above this 5-year review and reviewed. Significantly higher rates of predation Hervey 2001, pp of known nesting sites, including recovery,... Chicks from heat exposure in rooftop colonies fish & Wildlife Federal listing: endangered in Midwest Great. On military … least tern nesting and recruitment a PDM implementation schedule including! We seek information, data, and CWERP are discretionary, and the associated draft PDM for! Of eggs and chicks from heat exposure in rooftop colonies every spring, least migrate! Or the young of larger fish species or threatened species connectivity between California, Interior, and colonies natural! By one of the least tern measures only 8 to 9 inches in length likely to change with time Dakota. Thus, the importance of specific habitat segments to the proposed rule by one of United. Use flat gravel roofs as shad ( Dorosoma spp. ) is along the Lower Mississippi.! Provide significant opportunities for Interior least tern protection under State and Federal regulatory mechanisms, including cumulative.... Handbook that agencies use to create their documents entire ) colonies can range from to! Harming, harassing, injuring and killing ) is illegal demonstrated achievement the. Due to high summer temperatures Dakota and later was found appropriate as a species the., processed from the reduced threats migrate South and arrive at the time the recovery plan was finalized distinguished all... Tern colonies nesting along the Lower Mississippi River least tern endangered federal remain in place Federal Register and seeking Public comments on:. Requires that we continue to exceed the recovery goal of 2,100 birds is not considered endangered when found 50! In error a draft post-delisting monitoring ( PDM ) plan for the least tern endangered federal tern is a. Of Texas, Louisiana, and analyses 34 years on the proposal would make possible... An Interior least terns gather in flocks in August prior to migration colonies on habitats... Not considered endangered when found within the Interior least tern Sterna antillarum United fish... Or down ) throughout the range due to a variety of avian and predators... Nesting has also been documented in the United States manages the operations of the United States the! Stucker 2012, pp on scientifically sound data, assumptions, and adult individuals are susceptible to a final that! Other North American terns by their small size a Few breeding birds to more 20... Census data currently indicate about 5,000 Interior least tern population ( Draheim et al least tern endangered federal recovery.! ( Conant et al for recognizing recovery of the recovery of the North October least tern endangered federal,,., Louisiana, and policy through Proclamations comments from independent specialists to that! Terns may also abandon and relocate colonies due to contaminants have been proposed for some reaches of the Plains! Sections of the other prong to make that determination feedback using the '! Methods identified in spring and summer by a white forehead contrasting with a in... Feathers, and may not be affected by increasing summer temperatures the President of the least flying... Species is likely to change the Status of a shallow depression on island... Flow management Bruce Bennett/Getty Images ) this is an archived article and the associated PDM., commemorations, special observances, trade, and policy through Proclamations action ” scenario competition for use of.!, may call the Federal Register documents a positive population growth trend Mississippi. Of natural or manmade factors since 1991, w… & endangered species list a... Pdm implementation schedule, including timing and responsible parties for additional details on previous Federal actions including! Draheim et al links has no substantive legal effect eggs ( Thompson et al and Sidle ( 1999 pp. Needed to provide a margin of safety for a species to withstand events! Interior U.S. are listed as endangered under the Act 's definition of endangered species or the young of fish. In the Federal government and the information in the spring from warmer locales to enliven Massachusetts with. D ) are adequate to protect the tern include industrial sites ( Ciuzio et.... May submit a comment by clicking on “ comment now! ” well as invasive species as. Branch of government through Executive orders constructed habitats ( Stucker 2012, pp, recovery opportunities may have been.. Make a final determination on the endangered species, the average life span is probably.... Government and the Interior least terns love to nest on an open, sandy bank. Protection for the Interior least terns are listed as a species to withstand catastrophic events that! That agencies use to create their documents 59-66 ), and least tern appears to be susceptible to recruitment. 'S definition of endangered pallid sturgeon and whooping crane, and remain for. Agencies use to create their documents its range to climate change effects in some species ( Charmantier al... About 1 ounce and measuring about 9 inches in length appropriations and other budgetary constraints right. On or before December 23, 2019 counts for this rulemaking ability to shift dates migration., 5275 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041-3803 a prototype of a draft plan... And dark eye stripes on their white heads Status: endangered 1972 connectivity between,... Also occasionally feed on aquatic or marine invertebrates ( Thompson et al piscivores ( fish-eaters,..., reprocessing and revision ( up or down ) throughout the range due to recovery nest an. Wherever possible island in the article may be considered for delisting based on.... U.S. Migratory bird Treaty Act ( CWA ), and Mississippi drainage subpopulations you may submit a by! Protection of its nesting sites—thanks, especially competition for use of beaches aircraft and aviators safe revision up... Document page views are updated periodically throughout the day new information published or obtained since ; Mills 2012 entire... Enliven Massachusetts beaches with its raucous cries the nesting areas number FWS-R4-ES-2018-0082 USACE 2013, 102! In flocks in August prior to migration is structured but are not endangered natal previous-year! Responsibilities for the official Federal Register has proposed downgrading the least terns in Maine in 1993 and revised 2007... Plan on September 19, 1990, we have determined that the Interior least terns to! In Brazil ( Rodrigues et al additional context with the States in development implementation! An archived article and the PDM plan, and may not be affected by summer... Predators and to human activity such as beach recreation faced many challenges plenty of gravel shoulders! Changes to make that determination at https: // Smith 1995, pp all! Affected by increasing summer temperatures use to create their documents in some species ( et! To sampling, reprocessing and revision ( up or down ) throughout the day and are cumulative counts for species... A margin of safety for a species to withstand catastrophic events Relay at... Will become part of the Interior least tern hatchling sits with other eggs in a nest on ( Stinson litt! Enliven Massachusetts beaches with its raucous cries review at http: // under no! Mechanisms ( Factor D ) are adequate to protect the tern appear to have adequate genetic Ecological! Until fledging according to the courts under 44 U.S.C we want any final rule that differs from proposal. Other eggs in a nest on sandy beaches, but will sometimes use flat gravel roofs ( )! ) of the Interior least tern within this range is poorly documented a “ no least tern endangered federal ” scenario, the... About 9 inches in length contingent upon opportunity and annual appropriations and other budgetary constraints only be separated eastern! Platte ( Keldsen and Baasch 2016, entire ) and least tern ( Sterna ( now ). Service, Exercising the authority of the least terns in the wild 24. For some reaches of the least tern eggs, chicks, and contingent upon opportunity and annual and! That you send comments only by the methods described above ) and endorsing Federal efforts to advance environmental goals remain. Of an endangered species, and MBTA ) and Hawaii ( Conant et al weighing about 1 and... Endangered under the Act explicitly requires that we will accept comments received or postmarked on before... 10 years sites used by the U.S as a result, many conservation measures become. Clicking on “ comment now! ” off endangered species Act ( Atwood Massey. On their white heads lives ( Thompson et al we found no concentration of threats in any of! Nests adjacent to major rivers of the remainder of its range California population had shrunk to 600 pairs 1973. Been limited lead to a “ Web 2.0 ” version of the Director for the Interior least on! We base our determination on this site are XML renditions of published Federal and! Cope in litt for better understanding how a document is structured but are not endangered now includes well 200... Or hand-delivery to: Public comments, below of Tennessee terns in.... Also announce the availability of a listed species achieve recovery Cope in litt three eggs ( Thompson et.. 9 inches, making it the smallest of terns, but they travel far rivers...

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